Early Advanced Stage

Students performing at this level of English language proficiency begin to combine the elements of the English language in complex, cognitively demanding situations and are able to use English as a means for learning in other academic areas. This is often called Intermediate Fluency.

Characteristics of this stage:

  • The student is considered to be at age level fluency
  • Literacy proficiency varies considerably depending upon familiarity and prior experience with themes, concepts, and genre

Characteristics of the learner:

  1. The learner has no hesitancy to speak
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Allow time for students to discuss what they learn and generate questions in areas that require clarification
    • Use thematic units
    • Allow students to think aloud in primary language or English
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Allow for multiple right answers
    • Use Readers' Theater to develop fluency
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Use some words from children's home languages in the classroom
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
  2. The learner speaks with some fluency but lacks specific vocabulary in some areas
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Provide increased "wait time" to allow students time to process
    • Use Readers' Theater to develop fluency
    • Support vocabulary development with visuals
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Use Fishbowl Discussion
    • Use thematic units
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Teach the language of the subject
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Allow for multiple right answers
    • Use visual illustrate and pictorial diagrams for key points
    • Allow students to think aloud in primary language or English
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Make a list of the technical vocabulary essential for teaching the lesson. Do not substitute these words with easier ones
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Do not restrict use of students' home languages
    • Ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Allow time for students to discuss what they learn and generate questions in areas that require clarification
    • Make cross-curricular connections
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
  3. The learner understandings has expanded beyond communicative competence
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Use DRTA
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Use Readers' Theater to develop fluency
    • Provide opportunity for cross-age tutoring
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Use Grand Conversation
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Use SQ3R
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use thematic units
    • Teach the language of the subject
    • Model the pronouncing of difficult words
    • Provide walking filed trips
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Provide field trips
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
  4. The learner does not always get the nuances of the English language
    • Use visual illustrate and pictorial diagrams for key points
    • Do not restrict use of students' home languages
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use Question Answer Response
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Provide increased "wait time" to allow students time to process
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Post a list of the week's idioms for students to see
    • Use interviews instead of written exam
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • Focus on meaning rather than form, keeping error correction of structure to a minimum
    • Support vocabulary development with visuals
    • Use Readers' Theater to develop fluency
    • Make cross-curricular connections
    • Break task down into sequentially developed parts using simple language
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Use thematic units
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Restate complex sentences as a sequence of simple sentences
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Rephrase idioms and teach their meaning
    • Model the pronouncing of difficult words
    • Provide opportunity for cross-age tutoring
  5. The learner may have trouble following unpredictable shifts in thought and conversation
    • Use timelines
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Use Readers' Theater to develop fluency
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use maps
    • Provide increased "wait time" to allow students time to process
    • Use interviews instead of written exam
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Communicate with gestures and be aware of cultural awareness acceptance of gestures
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Use thematic units
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Provide opportunity for cross-age tutoring
    • Break task down into sequentially developed parts using simple language
  6. The learner reads a wider range of texts with increasing comprehension
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use KWLH
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Use thematic units
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Use timelines
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Use maps
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Teach underlining and note taking
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Summarize main ideas of the text by using outlines and study guides
  7. The learner demonstrates use of higher order language and explores concepts in greater depth
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Use thematic units
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Use timelines
    • Teach the language of the subject
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use interest grouping
    • Provide specific explanations of keywords and special or technical vocabulary, using examples and nonlinguistic props when possible
    • Ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Use maps
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Teach underlining and note taking
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
  8. The learner produces connected discourse and narrative
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Teach underlining and note taking
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Use portfolios that show progress over time for assessment
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Encourage student to self-evaluation
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use thematic units
    • Use pictures, objects, symbols, body language and actions
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
  9. The learner demonstrates increased levels of accuracy and correctness
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Write student answers in sentence form on the board
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Focus on meaning rather than form, keeping error correction of structure to a minimum
    • Use pictures, objects, symbols, body language and actions
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Use thematic units
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Use response journals and respond to their thinking
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
  10. The learner generates more coherent, complex, varied texts
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Use response journals and respond to their thinking
    • Use portfolios that show progress over time for assessment
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Teach the language of the subject
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Encourage students to correspond with an English speaking pal
    • Write student answers in sentence form on the board
    • Encourage student to self-evaluation
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Use Muddiest Point
    • Ask students to work with a partner to write a story or a report
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Use pictures, objects, symbols, body language and actions
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Reduce the number of questions on the exam
    • Use thematic units
    • Use cartons to support literacy
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Preview the chapter by connecting to previous lesson
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • Introduce strategies incrementally with a few at a time