Advanced Stage

Students performing at this level of English language proficiency communicate effectively with various audiences on a wide range of familiar and new topics to meet social and academic demands. In order to attain the English proficiency level of their native English-speaking peers, further linguistic enhancement and refinement are necessary. This is called Fluent or Near Fluent.

Characteristics of this stage:

At this stage can produce oral and have literacy comparable to that of a native speaker

Characteristics of the learner:

  1. The learner actively uses academic language to negotiate meaning
    • Use thematic units
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Use some words from children's home languages in the classroom
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Teach the language of the subject
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy
    • Allow for multiple right answers
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Allow time for students to discuss what they learn and generate questions in areas that require clarification
    • Allow students to think aloud in primary language or English
    • Provide specific explanations of keywords and special or technical vocabulary, using examples and nonlinguistic props when possible
    • Use flexible grouping
    • Make cross-curricular connections
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
  2. The learner uses multiple strategies to construct meaning from print
    • Point out captions which accompany illustrations and explain how each caption supports the main ideas presented in the chapter
    • Provide field trips
    • Use DRTA
    • Use maps
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Use thematic units
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use SQ3R
    • Use timelines
    • Use flexible grouping
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Provide written notes and summaries,
    • Provide walking filed trips
    • Direct students to look at titles, subtitles, summaries, and transitional paragraphs.
    • Teach skimming and scanning
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Point out the phonological and orthographic English rules
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use interest grouping
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
  3. The learner produces connected discourse and narrative
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Use thematic units
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use interest grouping
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Use flexible grouping
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
  4. The learner demonstrates increased levels of accuracy and correctness
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Use thematic units
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Point out the phonological and orthographic English rules
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
  5. The learner uses higher-order language to persuade and evaluate
    • Use thematic units
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Allow students to think aloud in primary language or English
    • Ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Make cross-curricular connections
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use Fishbowl Discussion
    • Use timelines
    • Allow for multiple right answers
    • Point out the phonological and orthographic English rules
    • Sequence strategies according to their observable applicability. Outlining, note taking, and webbing are more concrete and observable
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Use maps
  6. The learner reads a wider range of narrative genre and content texts with increasng comprehension
    • Teach multiple metacognitive strategies for comprehension like summarizing and self questioning and setting goals
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Use thematic units
    • Use Grand Conversation
  7. The learner produces language with varied grammatical structures and vocabulary comparable to a native English speaker of the same age
    • Ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Provide feedback on formal English usage
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Point out the phonological and orthographic English rules
    • Allow for multiple right answers
    • Make cross-curricular connections
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Teach multiple metacognitive strategies for comprehension like summarizing and self questioning and setting goals
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Use thematic units
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
  8. The learner writes using standard forms that includes creative and analytical writing as well as research
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Provide feedback on formal English usage
    • Use pictures, objects, symbols, body language and actions
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Use thematic units
    • Write student answers in sentence form on the board
    • Teach multiple metacognitive strategies for comprehension like summarizing and self questioning and setting goals
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use KWLH
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • Use Question Answer Response
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Use Syntax Surgery
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Use portfolios that show progress over time for assessment
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Encourage student to self-evaluation
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
  9. The learner writes with increased depth and breadth of topic, audience and purpose
    • Model responses that provide appropriate information using correct grammar
    • Use thematic units
    • Make definition webs that need examples or characteristics of the word
    • Use group discussion of prior experience
    • Encourage student to self-evaluation
    • Accept single word or phrases as correct answers. Do not insist that students speak in full sentences
    • Reduce the number of questions on the exam
    • Ask students to use the cloze procedure by supplying the words that fit meaning
    • Teach multiple metacognitive strategies for comprehension like summarizing and self questioning and setting goals
    • Always focus on content first before giving feedback or correcting grammar or pronunciation
    • Teach metacognitive strategies like Think Aloud and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)
    • Smile! This is universally understood
    • Exploit previously used language and link to pupils' experience
    • Use portfolios that show progress over time for assessment
    • Provide written notes and summaries
    • Explore Greek and Latin roots that appear frequently in English words. Select the words from content area books
    • Write student answers in sentence form on the board
    • Present language that is just slightly beyond the learner's current level of comprehension
    • In response to students' written errors, try to focus on consistent errors of a specific type (e.g. lack of plural endings). Be gentle
    • Provide feedback on formal English usage
    • Use pictures, objects, symbols, body language and actions